This had been done before in many films. As Seng reports (257), Johnson's music for “Full Fathom Five” survives in two manuscripts and one collection of songs: in Birmingham City Reference Library MS. 57,316; in Folger Library MS. 747.1 (fols. 83-140. The unretarded upward movement of the flights of angels bringing Hamlet to his final rest sets him as a character apart from those others who have received unexpected returns from the heavens and brings release from the ironically circular motion of many of the actions and images of the play. Finished with Launcelot, Lorenzo asks, “How cheer'st thou, Jessica?” The question is central to our understanding of the banter in act 5. Often directionless and ambiguous in its meaning, the music of The Tempest provides a context for Prospero's magical machinations and becomes, through the course of the play, a powerfully evocative symbol of this magic. This bacchic context seems to be poles apart from the discourse of praise. [In the following excerpt, Berley focuses on the dramatic context of Lorenzo's speech about music and harmony in Act V, scene i of The Merchant of Venice.]. Annotated Bibliography Concentrating on the military and ceremonial music of Shakespeare's English histories and Troilus and Cressida, R. W. Ingram (1971) finds an increasingly complex integration of music into the general design of Shakespeare's plays as the dramatist's artistry matured. with the harmonious or inharmonious tuning of the bodily elements and humours to produce a certain character. We are willing as an audience to consent to the power Prospero exercises through music precisely because we are able to supply for it the necessary conventional symbolic significance. And, as Elaine Showalter has shown, the subsequent history of Ophelia's representation, not only on the stage but in the discourses of literary criticism, psychiatry, and the visual arts, has followed these first male readers in constructing her as an archetype of both woman and madness.2. The Operas of Verdi (1979), II, pp. There is once again political, social, and personal order. White, pp. It may be recalled that Queen Elizabeth was fond of having the hall resound with her trumpets for a while before dining.10 In the latter part of the play, during Timon's exile and until his death, only the uncompromising music of Alcibiades' army is heard. Iris then summons the ‘Naiads of the windring brooks’ and ‘sunburn'd sicklemen’ to dance before the couple. The last page perused by Prospero may well have been concerned with musical charms as described by Ficino,13 judging from the proximity of the two statements: ‘when I have required / Some heavenly music […], I'll drown my book’ (5.1.51-7). Now the positions are reversed. Nevertheless, the polyphony is not only to be construed as the superposition of voices of varying actantial relevance, but also as a dialectical relationship of mutual framing—the coalescence/confrontation of two mutually dependent sign-systems—, since on the one hand music is the indispensable gambit of theatrical representation, on the other no musical piece is left unframed by language, the variety of these verbal commentaries and responses inducing in turn one more polyphonic construction to the whole. The Tempest, by unpicking without ever quite denying that analogy does not merely reflect a historical moment, the time of ‘the untuning of the sky’, but forces us as an audience to go beyond a simple criticism of the fragility of the world of the stage. The popular picture of the Elizabethan actor ranting his lines on a poor bare stage with only his words to provide scenery, sound, and atmosphere hardly agrees with the almost incredible riches recognized elsewhere in Elizabethan life. He then encounters his father, Old Gobbo, and proceeds to ask him “Do you know me, father?” The Launcelot-Gobbo subplot suggests, however glibly, that where identity, conscience, shame, and fathers are concerned, “Truth will come to light … in the end truth will out” (2.2.74). It is Sebastian who does time's job. … But it is not necessary to dwell on it in order to appreciate the speech, so tactful is Lorenzo's pedagogy.” According to Danson, “Lorenzo's treatment of music's role in human and in cosmic nature is at once description and demonstration: it enacts its meanings. 4 (winter 1974): 615-26. The implication is that the musicians belonging to a company or hired for the occasion were always on hand, and that every play may be assumed to employ music. Ben Johnson, ed. As in Twelfth Night, music is here represented as an alternative language of the emotions, the “food of love.”5 But in contrast to that comedy, where erotic desires drive the plot and women have a correspondingly prominent role, 1 Henry IV has little time for either women or love, and uses the brief time of a woman's song to emblematize their displacement. Like Marina and Imogen, Perdita also can sing and dance superbly. The stage direction indicates stoups of wine as well as drum and trumpets. Given this emphasis on the maternal, the most significant song Ariel sings (the original music for which does not survive) and the most significant role he plays may be that of Ceres in the masque. They give us the noise and progress and fervor of battle, the only place where Coriolanus is really at home; musical effects loudly bespeak the formality of the proceedings which are to make Coriolanus a consul and thereby emphasize the people's violent, confused upsetting of that formality; music embodies perfectly the wild hero-worship, so excessive and so brief; it points up the structural repetitions of the play. Just as today’s theatrical performances and cinemas entertain the audience with a visual treat, “in the playhouses of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, the aural dimension carried out a … But the deepest distinctions between The Tempest and As You Like It are those that point to profounder questions of ethics and the nature of freedom and responsibility. Half an hour later by his own timing (V.i. In this respect it exactly parallels the other romances, thus emphasizing again a basic function of the music—to intensify both dramatically and philosophically the moments of highest tension. we know him to be cold sober, for one cannot imagine any mood of Iago's which he would express by singing. The songs of As You Like It are largely situational; for the most part, they do not require a comprehensive view of the drama to render them meaningful. The musical part of a play's design is itself a theme that Shakespeare develops with increment of subtlety and power in sequent plays. They finally have got it both ways. When commentary turns from general or comparative analyses to the subject of individual works, The Tempest—frequently described as the most musical of Shakespeare's plays—receives more critical attention than any other. Ariel must work for his freedom; Caliban expects his to fall into his lap. …”, Frey sees the centrality of song in the play as one aspect of its larger movement toward reconciliation, the “possibility of harmonizing a shifting of likings” (italics mine).8, Interpreting Shakespeare's music as a univocal symbol, frequent in response to the comedies, has been even more insistent in response to the last plays, where the significance of “harmony” appears to expand from the social into the supernatural realm, and where music on stage is heard as “music of the spheres,” the earthly register of divinity. In no other play does Shakespeare make it such a dominant element. The tempo increased dramatically, and the pitch of the music was dropped slightly to get this feeling. 131-56. In fact it is not even represented on stage, but rather reported by Gertrude, in one of the play's most lyrical speeches: This speech marks a crucial moment in the play's response to the threats of excess and disorder embodied in Ophelia's music. It is not the least tribute one could pay to Shakespeare when one says that he manages to extract interest from this most trivial and boring of phenomena. ‘The point that I want to make’ (in the company of Hereward T. Price, whose words, from his invaluable essay on ‘Construction in Shakespeare,’ I quote) ‘is that Shakespeare had an eminently constructive mind. ii. His is a tough life, with hunger and the gallows never very far away, and he needs all the courage he can muster. The outbursts of anger that structure the long second scene of Act I are all aroused by the failure of others to observe a properly obedient attitude towards him. Whatever the mystery of Antonio's sadness, Antonio's conception of merriment is Socratic in its basic terms: one needs to reattune (re-create) one's soul morally before one can achieve merriment (recreation). Cerimon, a man noted as a scholar of the “secret art of physic” and by his own statement familiar with “the disturbances / That nature works, and of her cures” (37-38), calls for music to revive the supposedly dead Thaisa: It is quite possible that Shakespeare was simply combining and expanding several current notions. Paulina is careful to forestall possible charges of black magic: “… those that think it is unlawful business / I am about, let them depart” (96-97). I think that ‘apprehension’ to the Elizabethans was a very palpable thing. He could perhaps turn out to be Portia's fellow, just as Lorenzo, if he would “keep promise,” could turn out to be Jessica's fellow. 55-67. After the opening scene has explored the territory of Orsino's love-sickness (‘If I could control Olivia as I can control my music …’), I. ii. His “Farewell master” (II, ii, 173) and “No more dams I'll make for fish” (II, ii, 175) signalize his revolt from Prospero. Calls attention to Falstaff's association in Henry IV, Parts 1 and 2 with musical instruments that traditionally symbolized lechery, gluttony, and drunkenness. The dance of shepherds and shepherdesses during the sheep-shearing feast, which helps to change the mood of The Winter's Tale at IV.iv.167, would have been an immediately recognizable country dance, perhaps a “hay” with its winding pattern of steps, for we remember Florizel's refreshing description of Perdita's dancing: Nevertheless, why would Shakespeare have introduced into his great Whitsun pastoral scene “a dance of twelve satyrs” (343)? In women, music mirrors their own inherently excessive feminine nature; their musical pleasure thus generates monsters of unrestrained female desire, “whorish, bawdie, and vncleane.” In either case, music produces a breakdown in social order that is expressed, significantly, in unruly utterances: men become “smoth mouthed,” women “filthie speaker[s].”29 Here is the same nexus of associations between music, feminine vocality, and semantic excess that we saw in French feminist theory, viewed from the perspective of male sexual anxiety. The Tempest could not exist without its music, whether it is the strange and solemn airs that accompany the magic banquet, the sprightly singing of Ariel, or the drunken cavorting of Caliban, Stephano, and Trinculo. In Shakespeare and the Dance (1981), Alan Brissenden points out that although dancing was one of the chief occupations of Elizabethan fairies, they were creatures who rarely walked if they could get from one place to another by hopping and skipping, tripping and gambolling, in “paroxisms of antic corybantic jollity”.4. As lovers exit, politicians enter: the oaths of love are set off against the sounds of the political world and its promises. Unlike the Indian boy, Viola is a character we know and love, but like him she is the innocent victim of a lovers' vicious quarrel. Falstaff will not change because he is incapable of change but, at this moment, though he is unaware of it, the most important thing in his life, his friendship with Hal, ceases with the words “Good-night.” When they meet again, the first words Falstaff will hear are—“I know thee not, old man.”. Variously defined in the text as manipulative, civilizing, maddening, magical, rapacious—like Prospero-as-ruler—music has a particular significance in The Tempest as it features as a metonymic version of Prospero's power, while at the same time it is also the figure of the challenge to this very power in its discordant, anarchic dimension. It is significant that the one instance of Shakespeare's troping of the doctrine is Lorenzo's explanation of the inaudible character of the heavenly music. It enjoys several woodland songs like “Over hill, over dale” and “You spotted snakes with double tongue,” which, as seems appropriate, are given to fairies. Gertrude's description of Ophelia's drowning aestheticizes her madness, makes it “pretty,” and in so doing makes it safe for the easier, distancing responses of pity and compassion; the Siren has become merely “mermaid-like.” On the discursive level, too, Gertrude's verbal lyricism performs a crucial function: it re-appropriates Ophelia's music by inscribing it in the containing verbal structures, the metaphorical “music” of poetry. Such temperance constitutes being “contemplative in living art”—not being prone to “quick recreation” by wine, women, and lascivious song. For the moment we might turn from Ferdinand's wonder at the celestial music to Caliban's celebrated response to the island's sound. And finally, once again The Tempest must be characterized as the culmination of Shakespeare's musical philosophy. With her choice “curbed by the will of a dead father,” which requires certain reactions to music, Portia reveals that such pressure can further thwart one's judgement. Mood, character, action, theme, and imagery all build from the music played in the scene.6 Structurally the scene precedes Richard's death. We must trust the authority of the poet, of antiquity, and of tradition, but how is this tale, this spectacle, to edify and please us? Press, 1961), 150-53. Shirley Ardener (New York: Halsted Press, 1978); qtd. The play's “humming” sometimes seems an externalization of the “beating” (4.1.164) of Prospero's mind. Again it is a case of relying on harmonious or consonant music to induce order into the disordered mind, thus “tuning” it until the harmony of reason is achieved. But the most extensive Renaissance treatment of the subject was that of Robert Burton in The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621). ed. If you saw the BBC-TV production of All's Well, you had a glimpse of Donald Sinden prancing along with Angela Down at his side; for the Edwardian period chosen by Guthrie for his production, Alec Guiness and Irene Worth in Canada whirled on stage to a fast, old-fashioned Viennese waltz. Shakespeare knew very well the limitations of pristine, immediately comprehensible, plain-style syntax and expression, just as he also knew, as Iago does, the enormous rhetorical powers of nonsense. In Shakespeare: The Critical Heritage 1693-1733, ed. An Act which has seemed to be dominated by the ill-starred love of Orsino and Olivia, has been, in subtle fact, dominated by Viola/Cesario. Margaret Waller, 1974; rpt. Yet all the while music is being played for a courtship dance like the galliard, so that the pretty sonnet may also be a cue for a flirtatious dance by the lovers, their bodies swaying forwards and backwards with the music and the verse, a gallant advance by Romeo succeeded by a coy retreat by Juliet. In the vision scenes the experiments made with a traditional concluding device coalesce with another series of experiments in musical structuring involving what I have elsewhere called ‘the musical pause.’6 The musical pause comes usually towards the end of the fourth act and brings a lull in the visible action, a lessening of excitement, a momentary easing of tension, after which the final catastrophe follows more forcefully. Rosalind King (1987) contends that Desdemona's “willow song” in Act IV, scene ii of Othello functions as a harrowing expression of her confusion and helplessness in the face of the destruction of her harmonious marriage to Othello. Olivia is not so abandoned to her sorrow as she thought she was. [In the following essay, Schmidgall compares Shakespearean play texts to musical scores. SOURCE: Iselin, Pierre. … His art has always been more vocal than physical: at some early stage in his career he decided that for himself the body was a less supple instrument than the head. 111-23, Cyrus Hoy, ‘Masques and the Artifice of Tragedy’; Jeffrey Fischer, ‘Love Restored: A Defense of Masquing’, Renaissance Drama, 7 (1977), pp. By living with both, Jessica learns more about their competing truths than anyone else in the play. Coriolanus offers an example of Shakespeare's use of that specialized kind of unsung music called upon for signal and ceremonial effects: the drum for the alarum, for the flourish the trumpet; these were indispensable to Elizabethan plays, dealing heavily, as they did, in battle and ceremonial scenes.16 Too often we read absently past the musical directions for flourish, tucket, retreat, sennet, alarum or dead march, without trying to realize what the audience actually heard at that point or without trying to comprehend the total effect of music, words, and movement. A coranto, no less! Tragedians used the discontinuity between image and reality to bitter satirical ends; Daniel expressed increasing disquiet at the vanity of masques; Jonson attempted to take on critics directly in works like Love Restored, and Campion in The Lords' Masque anxiously insisted upon the necessity of the masquers remembering the significance of the roles they played as they returned to their normal world.11. What he sings is pseudo-impromptu. George Parfitt (1975), p. 435. F. N. Robinson (London, 1957). Troilus and Cressida uses music as a structural element rather differently. Boito wrote of the “inherent, powerful musicality” in Shakespeare's Othello,31 and it is worth allowing Shaw to reiterate this fact of Shakespearean drama in an operatic context, before we pass on to specific “musicological” aspects of Shakespeare's poetry. John Gross, Shylock: A Legacy and Its Legend (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992) 99. Jessica's identity—as a woman, as a lover, as a convert—appears to be in flux in 2.6. Being a soldier, a man of action, Hotspur has no use for poetry and fine language, any more than for fair queens in their summer's bowers, singing with ravishing division to their lutes. The song itself is as sickly-sentimental a love song as Shakespeare could invent, “Come away death” being roughly translated to mean, “Hurry up and bury me.” In Shakespeare's Use of Song (1923), Richmond Noble sensed its “humourously playful pity for the Duke's sad love-grief” (p. 83), but we also hear ironic laughter of the kind heard in Hamlet and Troilus and Cressida and other plays seen at the Globe in about 1600. v.), for example, observing its timing ‘musical in its strictness’, and ‘the abrupt scuffling interjections of the concealed spectators, who supply a kind of comic bassoon accompaniment to Malvolio's unctuous ‘cello’.3 The play has contrasting vocal parts, whose observance in performance is almost compulsory; Sir Toby and Malvolio in the bass/baritone range, Sir Andrew a nasal tenor against the purer tenors of Orsino and Sebastian, Olivia, reaching for contralto but startled by love into her true soprano, Viola mezzo-soprano throughout, however as Cesario she may cling to the lower register, and Maria, whose voice must be comically linked to her diminutiveness, either squeaky or improbably gruff in one so small. Orlando has just shown himself willing to risk his life for his faithful servant, Adam. The great man himself has the first words: The conditional mood takes account of a renaissance debate about the nature of music, of the links between the music of the spheres and the musica humana of a well-ordered commonwealth. Another hint of musica mundana occurs at the very end of the play. To try to account for the music in the last two acts, except for Hermione's resurrection, as a symbol of the restoration and reconciliation which is soon to take place, is to read philosophy where there is none. We will not find in Twelfth Night, as some have found in Chekhov, an approach to symphonic form. In the third scene of the fifth act amid wild alarums and excursions, and to the accompaniment of thunder, various fiends appear to Joan La Pucelle. This association, the authors contend, enhances the fat knight's emblematic relation to the unregenerate sinner described in St. Paul's epistle to the Ephesians. This essay tells much about his life and includes some details of family members. The play is not ready for Sebastian until it has established Viola. His inner idea is manifested in an action, with which it is intimately fused, so that the crises in the action which move us most deeply reveal at the same time most clearly the inner core of Shakespeare's thought’ (pp.16-17).2 He wrote of Hamlet: ‘It just will not do to tear a motif—the feigned madness—out of the play and consider it all alone by itself. … It is true that he garbled the above passage from the Republic by substituting cherubim for sirens and vastly enlarging the revenge of the heavenly music, but Lorenzo's general doctrine shows an accurate knowledge of a part of Plato's Timaeus. Shakespeare presents a man who has been entrusted with a large measure of the safety and commercial interest of the Venetian state, and who, for the first half of the play, seems capable of fulfilling that trust. 3 (fall 2000): 313-31. The final scene broaches the possibility that “the sweet power of music” has helped to bring together another pair of lovers who do not know each other well enough; and one—or both—may purpose merriment too much. 78-102; Richmond Noble, Shakespeare's Use of Song with the Text of the Principal Songs (London: Oxford University Press, 1923). Pericles offers a degree of reassurance. We hear him call out, “Who's there? In the same chanted tetrameter we heard earlier, Gower summarizes, hints at a moral—“I'll show you those in trouble's reign, / Losing a mite, a mountain gain” (II.Cho.8-8)—calls upon spectacle (this time a dumb show) to supplement his words, and finally, having described a storm and shipwreck to which Pericles has fallen victim, excuses himself. The most sustained motif is Hector's challenge, and its music relentlessly reverberates the central ideas of the play. 1984), 5.1.57. Her songs are like an inversion of patriarchal speech, a release of repressed psychic energies and unmet emotional needs. Thus I presuppose not that music expresses feeling but that it is “expressive of it.”15 Such feeling as music is expressive of is affiliated, especially in the Renaissance, with specifically sexual feeling, desire, eroticism, the body. Asserts that the language of Macbeth “makes its own music, if we listen.” Doran calls attention to reiterations of rhymes, words, and phrases; multiple cadences of the blank verse; the recurrence of dominant and minor themes; and the distinctive “voices” of the central characters. to receive any awards, "William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet" was and J. Payne Collier (London: Shakespeare Society, 1843). Surveys classical and medieval views of the effect of music on persons suffering from mental illness, especially depression. Commenting on “the remarkable similarities between Shakespearean and operatic style,” Gary Schmidgall (1990) urges actors and audiences to be attuned to the sound as well as the sense of the blank verse, contending that attention to its melodies and cadences is essential to understanding and appreciating Shakespeare's dramaturgy. 3) Why is it this character who sings and not another? M. C. Horowitz, A. J. Cruz and W. A. Furman (University of Illinois Press, Urbana and Chicago, 1988), p. 45. Rereadings of the play, and various rewritings from the point of view of Caliban, have within the last couple of decades made Prospero and Caliban an almost standard trope59 of colonization, “figures portrayed as self-and-other, the West and the Rest of Us, the rationalist and the debunker, the colonizer and the indigenous.”60 What in the text has given these writers a position from which to respeak or rewrite Caliban's story is in part his position in relation to Prospero, who subjects him by means of paternalism, assumptions of racial superiority, linguistic conversion, “art,” and violence. Peter Alexander (Glasgow, 1951). This approaches Milton's treatment of the subject in At a Solemn Music.” Hollander points to Ronsard and then, remarking no difficulties in Lorenzo's exchange with Jessica, writes that “Lorenzo retorts with a traditional disquisition on music and the affections, ending on a note of musica humana with all of its ethical and political connotations.” Hollander concludes his analysis without stating what the connotations are: “Innuendoes of musica mundana, golden, silent, and inaccessible, are intimated at Belmont, where actual music is heard, and where the Venetian incompatibilities of gold and love are finally reconciled, almost as much in the golden music as in the golden ring.”. Florish, a peece goes off” (Q2). Brooks ’ and ‘ sunburn 'd sicklemen ’ to dance before the murderers. Real thing Ariel leads the three that is suddenly changed when the seems. Opinion to knowledge expectation at a moment occurs at I. III more complicated than have... 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