Strategic Intelligence plays a vital role in our country's national security and is a valued role to our decision and policy makers. Thus, a McDowell move toward Manassas would spark a race in which Johnston would have to rush to Beauregrad’s aid across piedmont terrain and with limited railroad access. The views expressed in this podcast are those of the speakers and do not necessarily reflect those of the U.S. Army War College, the U.S. Army, or the Department of Defense. Learn how the CIA is organized into directorates and key offices, responsible for securing our nation. —General H. Norman Schwarzkopf III, U.S. Army[39]. The assignment fell to a Naval Intelligence officer attached to the ROK Navy, LT Eugene Clark. President Davis denied requests to authorize relocation of Johnston’s army. Possession of Inchon would enable the allies to recapture a key air base, and mount a major ground offensive on Seoul which would cut off North Korean forces in the south.[23]. And yet, to speak of force without associating a corresponding value to intelligence is akin to speaking of a boxer without eyes or a brain. Early in the days of radio communications, neither side was particularly astute in communications security, and both exposed their vulnerabilities over the airwaves. However, James Doolittle’s carrier strike on Tokyo in April 1942 gave impetus to the argument that what was needed was the destruction of America’s carrier fleet. This conclusion misses the point. Israel faced a similar situation to its north, against Syria and Lebanon, and to its east, against Jordan. It knew when the EAF would be most vulnerable–when the aircraft would be most exposed; when the pilots would be slowest in getting to their aircraft for flight operations; and when leadership would be unable to provide direction. Among these were bankers, clerks, couriers, housewives, and Rose Greenhow, proprietor of a respectable salon frequented by senior government and military officials. “Intelligence reduces the unknowns that planners must face and forms the basis for both deliberate and crisis action planning,” the Naval Doctrinal Publication points out. Washington, D.C. 20505. On 16 July, she sent word that the Federal forces would move out that very day, marching from Arlington to Manassas, via Centreville, a distance of only 20 miles. and (2) What forces could the enemy bring to bear when it began? official you have information for CIA. [14]Henry F. Schorreck, Battle of Midway: The Role of COMINT at the Battle of Mid­way (SRH-230) (Washington, DC: Depart­ment of the Navy Historical Center, April 1999), 2. The loss of her fleet carrier force deprived Japan of the initiative; henceforward she was on the defensive—attempting to hold the great spread of the Southern Resources Area and contiguous regions she had so handily won.… Two basic factors led to the result: first and foremost, the American knowledge of the Japanese secret codes, which presented Nimitz with an accurate picture of Japanese intentions and dispositions. To gather intelligence on the enemy, he initially relied upon subordinates to scout and report back with information, but inaccurate reports led to early defeats (Daigler, 2014). OP-20-G, though, reasoned that the target was Midway. By postal mail: Central Intelligence Agency Office of Public Affairs Washington, D.C. 20505, Contact the Office of Privacy and Civil Liberties, Contact the Employment Verification Office. Beauregard, fearing the worst, sent a plea to Greenhow for intelligence reconfirming the date and planned movement of Union forces. After losing at Tannenberg, the Russian army could not muster enough offensive strength to re-enter Germany again until World War II. Please note we have no control over the security and reliability of postal mail. Please know, CIA does not engage in law enforcement. Intelligence analysis is the process of taking known information about situations and entities of strategic, operational, or tactical importance, characterizing the known, and, with appropriate statements of probability, the future actions in those situations and by those entities. Genevieve Lester is the De Serio Chair of Strategic Intelligence at the U.S. Army War College. Therefore, considering the value of force employment, technology, and mass without placing a corresponding value on intelligence is a mistake. This information immediately made its way to Richmond. The functions or toll of military intelligence lies in its knowledge of a possible or actual enemy within an area of operation that is acquired through the collection, evaluation and interpretation of military operations. [22] In the case of the amphibious assault at Inchon, an attack that led to the collapse of the North Korean army and the taking of some 125,000 prisoners, intelligence gathering and planning allowed US forces to overcome geographic disadvantages and take the enemy by surprise. Having gained the advantage, US forces traded blows, sinking the Hiryu, while losing Yorktown. Our response will occur via a secure method. Israeli intelligence was, indeed, outstanding in the Six-Day War. ), “Review of John Keegan’s Intelligence and War,” Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly (Winter 2004): 32. Another way is through the support intelligence gives to planning, when it provides information on the adversary’s capabilities and vulnerabilities—in today’s terminology “intelligence preparation of the battlespace.”. While the German Eighth Army was comparable in size to each of the Russian armies, it could not face a combined assault. [13] Were the Japanese to take Midway, they would threaten not only the Hawaiian Islands, but they could use Midway as a springboard for attacks on the continental United States. best method depends on your personal situation. Role of Military Intelligence. Intelligence in this case gave the Confederates several advantages. In this article I explore the role of tactical and operational intelligence in dictating force employment schemes and as a decisive element in five strategically significant battles— the First Battle of Bull Run (1861), Tannenberg (1914), Midway (1942), Inchon (1950), and the Israeli air strike initiating the Six-Day War in 1967—and I will demonstrate that it was neither technology nor material superiority that won the day, but accurate, timely, actionable intelligence, combined with leaders willing to treat intelligence as a primary factor in deciding outcomes. Success in the physical act of battle requires well-trained soldiers who are properly equipped, led by strong leadership willing to use force against a clear objective, employing it correctly, and sacrificing when necessary. [24] Particularly crucial to success was the assessment of the depths and advice to planners on where and when to strike. The need of the hour is a Big Data strategy as well as recognition of its crucial importance from the top of the hierarchy down the ranks. Action-oriented intelligence. Yamamoto believed that for Japan to win the war it would need to destroy the carriers early. It demonstrated how strategic intelligence can be used in conjunction with operational intelligence to provide senior decisionmakers information necessary to make well-informed national security decisions and to give leaders opportunities to mitigate the numerical superiority of an adversary. [4], The battle may be most renowned for the last minute heroics of General “Stonewall” Jackson on Henry House Hill, which led to the rout of the Union army, but the Confederates were able to employ the forces needed to win at Bull Run because they had created, months earlier, an intricate spy network in Washington, DC. Or, you can send us a message using the Tor browser at ciadotgov4sjwlzihbbgxnqg3xiyrg7so2r2o3lt5wz5ypk4sxyjstad.onion. Second, because of the existence of timely indicators and warning, it was inconceivable that the Federals could execute a surprise attack against the Confederates; agents were able to provide fresh, corroborated information on everything the Federals did. These defeats forced him to recognize the importance of accurate intelligence, though it took a while for his efforts to improve in this area. Answering this question is the purpose behind this exciting six-part podcast series on Intelligence. Required fields are marked *, The United States Army War College at Carlisle Barracks. Can mass win in technology-heavy environments? Force and its employment are significant in driving outcomes in combat. “Armed with the support of excellent communications intelligence and of his superiors in Washington, CINCPAC was able to satisfy all three of Clausewitz’s ‘principles of warfare’: decision, concentration, and offensive action.”[21] Foreknowledge, not willpower, was the most decisive factor at Midway. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ODNI: AN INTERVIEW WITH JAMES CLAPPER, CULTIVATING INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ONE STUDENT AT A TIME, START WITH BOOK THREE: FINDING UTILITY IN CLAUSEWITZ’S ON WAR, LEADERSHIP ROLE MODELS IN FICTION REVISITED: A WHITEBOARD. In the military, every piece of intelligence is centered around action. We reply first to messages of greater interest Israel took these acts, particularly the blockade, to be cause for war. It was not enough to know Arab strategy on the grand scale; Yariv wanted to know everything about every Arab unit down to the menus served in the sergeants’ mess.[32]. Military Intelligence - Revolution to First World War. The relationship with the United States, in particular, served a critical role before the preemptive strike by making clear to both the CIA and Pentagon that war was inevitable and getting tacit buy-in on the plan. to us and to those with more detail. the information via one of the above methods. Without specific authorization, the vast majority of Egypt’s air force officers, from air sector commanders all the way down to pilots, were uwilling to take even the most obvious emergency procedures.”[36] Only eight MiGs got into the air to defend their airfields; every one was shot down. Such policy makers as generals and presidents take intelligence into account when making their decisions and acting upon them. [38]Edwin T. Layton, And I Was There: Pearl Harbor and Midway—Breaking the Secrets (New York: Random House, 1987), 315. [18] In the ensuing battle, US intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance allowed for the coup de main on 4 June when dive-bomber squadrons from the carriers caught the Japanese completely by surprise, sinking the carriers Akagi, Kaga, and Hiryu. In order to validate their position, the cryptologists successfully used a ruse to get the Japanese to reveal their target. [42]Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Joint and National Intelligence Support to Military Operations (JP 2-01), (Washing­ton, DC: Department of Defense, Novem­ber 2003), V-14. Meanwhile, he and his staff developed a concept of operations that would allow for concentration of force, and surprise, against a most vulnerable enemy point. How would Nimitz have handled the Japanese attack on Midway had he not known in advance of the trap? War is a complex interaction of many factors, and in the end, it … But it also requires foresight, analysis, eyes and ears, and the development of a playbook on how to win—it takes intelligence. It is essential for the United States to maintain superiority in those technologies of critical importance to our security. The airfields that were undamaged in the initial strikes managed to get only 20 aircraft into the air, all of which were either shot down or crashed when they could find no undamaged airstrips to which to return. It is important to remember that intelligence lessons learned in the Cold War can be and should be used in other areas where the risk for conflict is high. US. While diverted from conducting operational intelligence prior to Pearl Harbor, OP-20-G had reestablished its functional capabilities by March 1942 and was reporting daily on hundreds of Japanese naval intercepts. “It would have been merciful had it killed me.”. Office of Public Affairs If you know of an imminent threat to a location inside the U.S., immediately contact ), What If? But the poorly educated and trained Russian cryptologists were unable even to master their simple cipher system and, in the case of the First Army, did not use a communications code. [26]Carl H. Builder et al., Command Con­cepts: A Theory Derived from the Practice of Command and Control (MR-775-ORS) (Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1999), 8. Rather than concede Prussia to the Russians or potentially face another defeat at the hands of the First Army, Ludendorff looked south for an opening to attack the Russian Second Army. This was all the more important as McDowell had a well-developed concept of operations and superior numbers. Your diverse skills. As he watched the disaster across the harbor unfold with terrible fury, a .50-caliber machine gun bullet crashed through the glass. Late in the afternoon, however, Johnston’s reinforcements, having arrived via rail at Manassas Junction the night before, made their way to the battle and broke the Union right flank. Two questions, however, had to be answered: (1) Where should the landing occur? Your email address will not be published. phone calls, e-mails or other forms of communication, from US citizens living outside of the Intelligence at Inchon was not happenstance, like the discovery of Lee’s lost orders before Antietam, but a conscious and necessary task assigned by leadership; before MacArthur could determine how to employ his forces, he first had to know whether he could attack or not and where he could attack if it was possible. And, quite literally, Israeli intelligence had a clearer picture of the Egyptian order of battle and capabilities than did Egypt’s own commanders. [2] Other works, such as John Keegan’s Intelligence in War, argue that blunt force is the primary variable in achieving victory: “Willpower always counts for more than foreknowledge.”[3]. Verification Office, Because of safety concerns for the prospective applicant, as well as security and While the United States would lose one carrier, it was left with five spread throughout the world. But intelligence testing has also been accused of unfairly stratifying test-takers by race, gender, class and culture; of minimizing the importance of creativity, character and practical know-how; and of propagating the idea that people are born with an unchangeable endowment of intellectual potential that determines their success in life. Amit’s (head of the Mossad) achievement in secret diplomacy was built upon the international intelligence links which the Mossad had worked so hard to foster for years.”[35]. To succeed, therefore, foreknowledge of the Japanese plans was vital. On 2 June 1942, with a good understanding of the general whereabouts of the Japanese fleet—a result of communications intercepts from the Japanese carriers—a US Navy patrol aircraft located and maintained regular contact with it. In May 1861, just weeks after the announcement of the fall of Fort Sumter, a spy in the quartermaster office of the US War Department had begun recruiting a ring of Confederate sympathizers in the nation’s capital. The Battle of Tannenberg was one of the largest, yet least known, strategically decisive victories in modern warfare. And while the North suffered horrendous casualties, its tenacious attacks and acceptance of losses suggested a stronger force than they had. [25]NDP2, “Support to Planning—The Inchon Landing.”. [12] Due in large part to the foresight provided by US naval intelligence, he failed. Beauregard’s fate rested in the hands of a few neophyte clandestine agents. Some analysts minimize the importance of intelligence while others argue it is essential. Subscribe: Apple Podcasts | Android | Google Podcasts | Stitcher | TuneIn | RSS. As such, a direct attack against Midway would force the US hand. Clark and his men also held key positions up to the morning of the attack and lit beacons to guide the lead elements of the assault force. 09/29/10. [23] Ibid., “Support to Planning—The Inchon Landing.”. What would have happened, for instance, had Jackson not reached Bull Run in time to “stand like a Stonewall”? foreknowledge.” (Sun Tzu & Griffith, 1968, p. 144). Intercepting Russian communications, German cryptologists deduced troop strengths and movement schedules, picked up orders, and, most importantly, messages between the First and Second Armies that showed how poorly the two were coordinating their efforts. We do not routinely respond to questions for which answers are found within this Web site. This vital keystone publication form s the core of joint intelligence doctrine and [32] Stewart Steven, The Spymasters of Israel: The Definitive Look at the World’s Best Intelligence Service (New York: Bal­lantine Books, 1980), 229. The role of intelligence in the Inchon landing is significant if for no other reason than it shows how central it is to planning a victorious campaign. The Chief of the Indian Army has also focused on the need for collaborations with industry. [31]Oren B. Michael, “Did Israel Want the Six-Day War?” Azure (Spring, 1999). Victory was not certain—defeat was avoided only as a result of the decision to reinforce Beauregard. German leaders had a thorough understanding of their adversary’s capabilities, schedules, and concept of operations, and this knowledge allowed them to exploit Russian vulnerabilities and defeat them in detail. Deploying three carriers north of Midway to lie in wait, Nimitz had nearly evened the odds. ‘Know your enemy’ was not, Yariv told his heads of departments, merely a figure of speech; it had to be taken literally. Even in biblical times, Moses sent spies to live with the Canaanites in order to learn about their ways and about their strengths and weaknesses. [12]Mansanori Ito, with Roger Pineu, The End of the Imperial Japanese Navy (New York: Jove Books, 1956), 51. Employment: We do not routinely answer questions about employment beyond the information on this Web site, and we do not routinely answer inquiries about the status of job applications. In each case, intelligence gave commanders the knowledge of the battlefield (battlespace awareness) and the understanding of their foe to focus their forces at the right place and time to win when, in all probability, they should have been defeated. The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). DoD Readers and Listeners: please use a non-DoD email to subscribe. Nor could Israel count on technological superiority to overcome the odds. The military and civilian intelligence capabilities collaborate to inform the spectrum of political and military activities. History has proven that actionable intelligence can lead less capable forces to victory. The use of intelligence in war In the following context, intelligence is generally defined as information prepared for the use of policy makers. The Japanese Navy, which had a fleet of six carriers before the battle, lost four at Midway, and it lost the bulk of its trained pilots and hundreds of aircraft. In the two-years before the Six-Day War, Yariv not only set about knowing the whereabouts of every Arab air base, but also having each inspected. [3]John Keegan, Intelligence and War: Knowledge of the Enemy From Napoleon to Al-Qaeda (New York: Alfred Knopf, 2003), 25. Through August and into September, the North threw 13 infantry and two armored divisions (98,000 men) at the Allies, necessitating the commitment of all UN reserves. This knowledge emboldened the Germans. On 10 July the network demonstrated its worth, as Rose Greenhow sent word that “McDowell has certainly been ordered to advance on the sixteenth.”[6] This intelligence, however, proved insufficient to start the race. [15] The Japanese, like the Russians before Tannenberg, committed the egregious error of having to resend messages because command elements used outdated code books—US cryptologists had the benefit of capturing transmissions in both old and new codes, thereby providing multiple opportunities to mine transmissions for useful intelligence. CIA or go to a U.S. Embassy or Consulate and ask for the information to be passed to a Therefore, just as Keegan correctly states that “Knowledge of what the enemy can do and of what he intends is never enough to ensure security,” so too, having superior forces equipped with better technology is no insurance for victory when opposing an enemy that invests in intelligence. Mail: Inside the U.S., send mail to the following address: Central Intelligence Agency Website created by,, IMPACT (OR NOT) OF INTEL ON STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING, NEEDLES IN HAYSTACKS: ANALYZING TODAY’S FLOOD OF INFORMATION, WHERE DOES INTELLIGENCE GO FROM HERE? [16]Frederick D. Parker, “A Priceless Advantage: U.S. Navy Communications Intelligence and the Battles of Coral Sea, Midway, and the Aleutians” in United States Cryptologic History, Series IV, Vol­ume 5 (Ft. Meade, MD: National Security Agency, 1993), 45. [40] Absolute power does not win absolutely. Heads of Departments and Agencies of the Executive Branch 4. The first three examples illustrate how intelligence can help lead to victory through clandestine intelligence operations designed to provide indications and warning information of impending attacks or operations. This suggested to Ludendorff that he need not worry about First Army assistance to the Second or exploitation of the gap created by his own army’s movement south. [19] Theodore F. Cook, Jr., “Our Midway Disaster,” in Cowey, 318–19. This critical piece of what today would be known as measurements and signatures intelligence (MASINT) averted what could have been a disaster, as the landing plans were modified to account for the findings. Several notable works, such as Stephen Biddle’s Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle, have addressed such controversial force employment questions as: What weight should be given to employment vice that of technology or mass? All told, three-quarters of the EAF was destroyed in the first hours of the war. [8]See Col. Frederick E. Jackson, “Tannen­berg: The First Use of Signals Intelligence in Modern Warfare” as submitted to the United States Army War College (Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College, 2002), 1–37. As in the past, intelligence will continue to play a vital role in future conflicts. You can also mail a letter to a U.S. Embassy or Consulate and request it be forwarded to CIA. The second intercept, a communiqué from the Second Army, provided a complete description of its dispositions and planned route of attack to the north. Office. Since World War I, the Navy had placed a good deal of effort into developing a strong communications intelligence capability. This revised edition of JP 2-0, Joint Intelligence, reflects the current guidance for conducting joint and multinational intelligence activities across the range of military operations. The first is that Western nations must fund their intelligence services to the level that’s necessary for them to be effective. Nothing in the article should be construed as asserting or implying US government endorsement of an article’s factual statements and interpretations. The Russian First Army struck first and won a victory at the Battle of Gumbinnen on 20 August 1914. Aerial photographs and reports from former inhabitants were used in shaping the operational plans for the amphibious task force commander, RADM James Doyle and his staff. It did not seize the initiative, however, choosing instead to wait until the Second Army could move north to catch the Germans in a pincer. The Germans suffered fewer than 20,000 casualties, captured more than 500 guns, and filled dozens of trains with captured equipment for transport to Germany. By destroying Second Army with relatively little loss, Hindenburg and Ludendorff could turn north against the First Army and a newly formed army, the Tenth. However, in each case, the victor could only employ the forces necessary to achieve victory through the advantage of foreknowledge. [30] And while Israeli forces were better trained, had superior leadership, and had a far more flexible doctrine, Egypt’s army could boast that the majority of its soldiers were combat veterans. Taken with Clark’s information, “intelligence helped Admiral Doyle select the best water approach, set the time for the amphibious assaults, and identify the North Korean Army line of communication as a critical vulnerability.”[25] Additionally, the intelligence estimates suggested that the North did not have forces enough in the area to offer significant resistance to the landing or to the recapture of Seoul.[26]. The role of intelligence in determining outcomes of battles and wars has varied dramatically across conflicts and time, contributing to wide differences in judgments about the importance of intelligence in war. Yes, intelligence services need to be good stewards of the taxpayer’s … Intelligence had paved the way for the Israeli Air Force to win one of the most lopsided victories in history. It’s just before 9:30 a.m., and people are gathering in a large operations room at the El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC) for the daily morning briefing. Midway fit this bill. Two days later, the Marines captured Seoul. His ability to win this race was possible only if he received timely, detailed, and believable intelligence indicating when, where, and with what forces McDowell would strike. In addition to the options below, individuals contact CIA in a variety of creative ways. 2015-10-12T20:11:14-04:00 https: ... Admiral William McRaven (Retired) talked about what makes up and the importance of good intelligence. In addition to the lost four carriers, three Japanese battleships were damaged, two heavy cruisers sunk and three more damaged, and several destroyers and auxiliary ships were sunk. Having been provided Yamamoto’s strategy, order of battle, transit dates, and carrier strike point, Nimitz had what he needed to commit his forces to battle. Military intelligence can be the most decisive element in wartime operations. Image Credit: Photo from the National Guard Command Center during response to Hurricane Irene (Department of Defense photo). The old problems of the validity of the information received remains, now coupled with the huge volume of data that can be received. daily. As a result of these failings, even had Egypt’s military been better trained and led, it was at a significant disadvantage from the outset. Learn more about Career Opportunities at CIA. Following the victory at Pearl Harbor, Japanese strategists had different conceptions about how to proceed in the war in the Pacific. Recruiting will contact applicants within 45 days if their qualifications meet our needs. The idea was to send a message, via the cable to Midway, to the Commanding Officer of the Naval Base instructing him to “…send a plain language message to Com 14 (Commandant 14th Naval District) stating in effect, that the distillation plant had suffered a serious casualty and that fresh water was urgently needed—to which Com 14 would reply, (also in plain language), that water barges would be sent, under tow, soonest.[17]. Thus, by skillfully incorporating intelligence into operational planning, in a little more than two weeks, allied forces were able to oust the invaders from the Republic of Korea.[27]. But it is only one factor. [8] While the German staff can be credited with developing the concept of operations that would lead to victory in the engagement, it was communications intelligence that provided a clear picture of the battlefield, or in today’s parlance, the battlespace awareness. Knowing that the United States would not condemn the attack and armed with an exceptionally well-developed plan, Israeli leaders authorized the use of force, thus seizing the initiative from their adversaries. What is the role of intelligence in a world where information is everywhere and the global security environment moves and evolves at breakneck speed? Finally, Israel faced a hostile international community; the United States was an ally but eager to avoid any spark that could ignite a conflict with Egypt’s ally, the Soviet Union. Midway was one of the decisive battles of history. —Sun Tzu, The Art of War[1], “History repeatedly has demonstrated that inferior forces can win when leaders are armed with accurate intelligence.”, Ever present in military discussions are questions of force composition and force employment in winning battles. Its commander, General Irvin McDowell, was under pressure from Lincoln to strike the Confederates at the earliest possible date. 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